The road to restoring populations of Eastern brook trout is ongoing, and it is a complex project. Across the speciesâ€™ range, it faces a host of threats:Â
- Increased Water Temperaturesâ€”Historically, the cutting of trees for lumber or to clear land for agriculture deprived streams of cooling shade, and the resulting warm water caused brook trout to retreat to higher elevations. Climate change poses serious threats, especially to those waters that are currently just cool enough for brook trout.
- Exotic Speciesâ€”The introduction of brown and rainbow trout in Eastern waters has been disastrous for some brook trout populations, especially in the South.
- Acid Mine Drainage or Precipitationâ€”From the acid-rain troubled lakes and ponds of the Adirondacks to Mid-Atlantic streams polluted with mine drainage, acidic water threatens brook trout. Adding limestone sand has reclaimed some waters from which the species has been extirpated.
- Habitat Fragmentationâ€”Roads, culverts, dams and other man-made obstructions cut off headwater streams from the rest of the watershed, which isolates populations. This leads to a lack of genetic diversity that makes the trout less able to deal with changes in habitat. Fragmented watersheds also mean that trout canâ€™t migrate to new habitat when their own becomes unsuitable, such as when downstream fish migrate to headwater streams in summer.
- Siltationâ€”Intense logging, road building, and poor agricultural practices cause siltation that reduces the fertility of insect life, covers vital spawning habitat, reduces water clarity. Itâ€™s imperative that all of us who live in the East do what we can to protect vital brook-trout habitat.
For more information, visit easternbrooktrout.org
Photos by Brett Colvin